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and TMD



Oro-facial pain includes pain associated with joints, muscles and nerves anywhere in the head, neck, face, mouth, gums or teeth. Some people experience pain in the ears, eyes, sinuses, cheeks or side of the head, while others have muscle spasms, clicking when moving the jaw or locking of the jaw.


One of the most common causes of oro-facial pain is temporo-mandibular joint disorder. TMD is a range of disorders, not one single entity. It can involve the muscles, the ligaments, the articulating disc, the bony joints or any combination of these.


TMD can present on one side or both sides. It can involve:

• Pain in the jaw, face, head and neck (and referred pain)

• Difficulty closing or opening the jaw

• Noises when moving the jaw

• Associated headaches

It is well understood that there is a bio-psycho-social model involved in TMD, as is with other chronic pain disorders. Addressing each of these components is the best way to help manage and reduce your symptoms.


Multi-disciplinary pain management (dental practitioners, medical physicians, physiotherapists and psychologists) may be required as well as self-management at home.

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